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Since that time, the fighting in Aleppo has intensified, which has led to damage to multiple important historical sites throughout the Ancient City. Debris is present across the area and blocks of structures have been reduced to rubble.Many of these are large and built with durable materials, such as stone, brick, and mud brick adobe, suggesting intense bombing.These include periodic reports by UNESCO, However, no work to date has documented the extent of damage to all of Syria’s World Heritage sites using recent high-resolution satellite imagery coupled with news media, social media, and verified, on-the-ground information.This report provides an assessment of all six Syrian World Heritage sites by comparing each site prior to the current conflict to their current status, as visible in satellite imagery.The destroyed structures include historic mosques and madrassas, government buildings, and civilian structures.In spring 2013, it was reported that the minaret of the Great Mosque of Aleppo had been destroyed during the fighting.
An image captured on 6 December 2011 was used to assess the ancient city prior to the start of the current conflict.
In the center of the ancient city, the Aleppo citadel rises 50m above the surrounding area and dates to the 10th century BC or earlier, and stands on the remains of Hittite, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk, and Ayyubid period buildings.
The surrounding walled city dates to the same periods, with still standing structures and architectural remains.
Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din Conclusion Acknowledgements References Cited Executive Summary In partnership with the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology’s Penn Cultural Heritage Center (Penn CHC) and the Smithsonian Institution, and in cooperation with the Syrian Heritage Task Force, the Geospatial Technologies and Human Rights Project of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) undertook an assessment of Syria’s World Heritage sites using high-resolution satellite imagery (Figure 1).
The potential for harm extends to all six Syrian sites that have been inscribed on the World Heritage list.
Imagery was available for all sites, with varying pre-conflict dates.