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A hypothetical ‘critical’ terminal restriction fragment (TRF, representing telomere) length of approximately 4 kb was deduced in medaka liver for prediction of organismal mortality, which is highly comparable with that for human cells.An age conversion model was also established to enable age translation between medaka (in months) and human (in years).Females having a longer telomere and lifespan than males have been documented in many animals.Such linkage however has never been reported in fish.To facilitate future research in this direction, we put forward a mathematical model that permits age conversion between medaka and human.Evidences provided herein strongly support that medaka fish is desirable for research in comparative biology of aging, unraveling the evidently conserved mechanism(s) of sex-dependent longevity in vertebrates.

Further examination over a wide spectrum of fish species would be useful to verify the prevalence of these biological phenomena in primitive vertebrates.

This laboratory model fish is of potential significance for deciphering the ostensibly conserved mechanism(s) of sex-associated longevity in vertebrates.

mammalian studies demonstrated that estrogen can stimulate telomerase activity via estrogen-receptor-mediated transcription and post-translational activation of TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase; the catalytic unit of telomerase) [], making it difficult to study the effects of telomere erosion on aging and LGG in either short-term experiments or within a single generation.

The survival probability of females is generally higher than that of males until 16 month-old, note the minor- to non-overlapping confidence intervals. Significant difference in TRF between sexes was observed in ‘younger’ individuals (i.e. Whenever significant difference in TRF was detected between two sexes, it was always longer in the females than in males (Figure during aging (upper: gill; lower: liver).

Shortening of organ TRF length across age in each sex was modeled by an exponential decay curve (see Materials and Methods). Asterisk indicates significant difference in TRF length between sexes at specific age: * = ≥ 0.89).

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100% mortality) when hepatic TRF decline to a mean ‘critical’ length of 3.8 kb and this was not sex-dependent (♂: 3.2 – 4.2 kb; ♀: 3.4 – 4.4 kb).